World Civilizations 1453 to the Present

Scarboro, Fall 2012

CORE 133

  copyright Henryk Makarewicz, Orka na tle kombinatu metalurgicznego Huty im. W. I. Lenina, 1965 r.

Nowa Huta Poland, 1965


Section A:      MWF 8:00 (H-M 303)

Section B:       MWF 9:00 (H-M 303)

Section C:       MWF 11:00 (H-M 303)

Office:             Hafey-Marian 306



Phone:             208-5900 ext. 5637 (o)

                         735-4762 (h)      

Office Hours: M/W 12:00-2:00; T/Th 10:00-12:00

Moodle Site:


I. Description:

While contact between cultures and civilizations is as old as recorded history, in the 15th century the world became knitted together through trade and conquest as never before.  This course traces the development of this interconnectivity between and among cultures and civilizations from the mid-fifteenth century to the present in order to better understand the history and meaning of globalization, its horrors and triumphs, perils and possibilities.  Central to understanding these processes is the relationship between the growing role of the state and the lives of its would-be subjects or citizens.  Modernity was most importantly characterized by ever more powerful attempts to create ideal subjects and societies (understood in among other things in terms of empire, nation, religion and economic model).  Our discussion of the last 500 years will focus on the manner in which societies sought to order, control and transform the world, communities and individuals around them according to their own understanding of the correct relationship between people, the state and ideology. 


II. Purpose:

A. Mission Statement:

This class fulfills King’s College’s Core requirement in the civilizations category. 

Civilizations courses are intended to study humanity’s shared past, its hopes and frustrations, failures  and triumphs in order to help the student both understand a complex world in a historical framework and to take responsibility for shaping its future. 

Civilization courses are designed to explore in some depth the complex dimensions of world history and the cumulative experience of the past, to provide an understanding of how yesterday influences today and the outlook for tomorrow. Ultimately history and the civilizations categories are intended to be self-reflective and we engage them because they tell us something of who we are.

Further, these courses are geared towards introducing the student to the historical method as a powerful tool to shape and understand the past and present.  As George Orwell noted: “Who controls the past controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.” The mechanics of this maxim will be a guiding question of the class.  

B. Objectives for the student:

Among the objectives for the student is that he or she will become familiar with important, social, cultural, political and economic events and trends in world civilization in the last 500 years.  Central to the course is the principle that in taking the class the student will become familiar with historical methodology and thinking.  He or she should be able to locate, evaluate and interpret historical sources and place them in context.  The course’s paper will ask the student to critically engage and evaluate primary and secondary sources and present analyses of them in clear and persuasive writing.  These everyday tools of the historian will serve the student well in any field he or she chooses to enter. 


C.  General Learning Outcomes for the Student:

In addition to the more content-related objectives described above, this course has some general liberal-learning goals of developing academic skills. It is expected that successful completion of this course will help you improve your ability to: manage information, which involves sorting data, ranking data for significance, synthesizing facts, concepts and principles; to understand and use organizing principles or key concepts against which miscellaneous data can be evaluated; to frame questions so as to more clearly clarify a problem topic or issue; to compare and contrast the relative merits of opposing arguments and interpretations, moving between the main points of each position; to organize your thoughts and communicate them clearly and concisely in written form; to obtain practice in selecting and presenting information and arguments within a restricted environment, especially the limitations of time in exams

III. General Requirements

A. Course Readings:


Bentley and Ziegler, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, vol. II, from 1500 to the Present, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2010.


Satrapi, Marjane, Persepolis, vol. I and II, (or complete boxed set) Pantheon, 2005. 


Singh, Khuswant, Train to Pakistan, Penguin, 2011.


B.  Course Films:

The films for the course are an intrinsic part of the course--they will be the centerpiece of class discussion on the week they are shown, and viewing them is a requirement for the course.   The films will be available on reserve at the King's College Library (please remember that there are roughly 50 people taking this class so plan accordingly).  A subscription to Netflix <<>> (shared or otherwise) is an inexpensive way to watch the films on your own time.     


Ernst D. Schoedsack, King Kong, 1933


C.  Course Readings, Primary Sources:

Each week you will also be expected to examine a series of primary sources consisting of texts, visual art and/or short video clips.  These sources will either be websites (links are provided in the syllabus) or files found on the course moodle site




These primary sources are to supplement the readings in the textbook and place you in dialogue with another time and place.  The primary sources in the course sharepoint site will be filed under the "shared documents" folder. You will need to examine these sources as a historian.  What can they tell us about the past and the worldview of past cultures?  How do they help us understand the historical theme of the week and the class as a whole?  Further, these documents will be the source upon which you will base your microthemes and paper for the class. 


C.  Microthemes:

Five times during this semester you will be responsible for writing a 1-2 page microtheme on the assigned primary source material covered during that time.  These microthemes are intended to allow you the opportunity to analyze and write about these sources historically and should consist of two parts: first, you should summarize the argument of the sources—you should ask and elucidate what the author, director or artist was trying to say.  Second, you should place the piece and argument within the larger context of the time and place.  What historical themes and trends is the artist or author tapping into?  How does it relate to larger issues in the class?  How are we to make sense of the work historically? 


Due dates for Microthemes:


First Microtheme

Sept. 17th

Second Microtheme

Oct. 8th

Third Microtheme

Oct. 19th

Fourth Microtheme

Nov. 14th

Fifth Microtheme

Nov. 30th


D.  Written Assignment:

Your larger writing assignment is due in its final form on December 7th.  This paper, totaling between 8-10 pages, will be much like a longer, more in depth, microtheme.  You are to take any of the primary sources and place them in historical conversation with one another and with other scholars.  Like the microthemes, you should seek to answer the meaning of the primary sources: what argument or worldviews were the authors/artists seeking to put forward?  How was this a product of the time and place in which they were living?  Importantly you are also to relate the sources to one another.  How do these sources help us understand global history of the past five hundred years?  What problems and opportunities do they articulate?  What larger issues are they wrestling with?  You are free to chose any sources used in the course (though you are not limited to these sources).


Importantly, you will need to ground your interpretation of your primary sources within the framework of historical scholarship.  Roughly speaking your paper should consist of two sections—the first reviewing the historical scholarship on your topic and the second placing your own interpretation of the primary sources within this discussion. 


This paper is to take place in several stages to facilitate the development and integration of these two parts of your paper: 


1)      Chose a topic that you are interested in answering and then begin thinking about the primary sources that you will need to utilize to answer these questions.  You will need to turn in a topic sentence September 12th.  


2)      On September 24th you will turn in your first annotated bibliography investigating your topic within the secondary literature.  This bibliography should include at least 5 secondary sources on the topic and should not include internet sources.  Your annotations should include the major thesis of the works and indicate how you intend to use them in your paper. 


3)      On October 15th you will turn in your second annotated bibliography outlining the primary sources you will be using in paper.  You will need at least 5 primary sources and your annotations of the sources will indicate how these sources will fit within the secondary literature and the argument that you are developing.


4)      On October 19th you will turn in your preliminary thesis statement explaining the central argument of your paper.  This statement should not be a statement of fact but rather of historical interpretation—explaining how we should understand your topic in dialogue with your secondary and primary sources.


5)      On November 5th you will turn in a draft of your historiographical section of your paper (4-5 pages).  This will be the section of your paper where you review how other historians and scholars have understood your topic. Five pages


6)    Between November 2nd and November 19th you will need to visit the writing center in order to have them review your historiographical draft and prepare for your second rough draft.  Please turn in a copy of your reviewed paper with the writing center staff with your second rough draft on November 28th. 


7)      On November 28th you will turn in your complete rough draft demonstrating a synthesis of your historiographical section with your own interpretation of a set of primary sources (8-10 pages).  This draft will have to be accompanied by a stamp demonstrating that you have visited the King’s College Writing Center before turning it in. Eight pages


8)      The final draft is due December 7th.


E. Exams:

There will be three exams in this class: two midterms (due on September 30th and October 28th respectively) and a final given during finals week.  These exams will be given on the course moodle site.  All exams will consist of short identifications quizzing knowledge of detail and significance and essays demanding your understanding of the course material through logical presentation of facts and explanation of historical trends.  The exams will cover both the material from the textbook and the primary sources.  You may take a missed exam only at the discretion of the instructor. 


G.  Quizzes

 There will be ten short quizzes this semester taken on the course moodle site.  These exams will primarily cover material covered in the course textbook.


Dates for Quizzes: 

Quiz 1


Quiz 2


Quiz 3


Quiz 4


Quiz 5


Quiz 6


Quiz 7


Quiz 8


Quiz 9


Quiz 10



H.  Class Discussion and Participation


As well as providing you with the methodological and analytical tools for engaging in historical thinking, this class will ask you to actively take part in a larger conversation of historical issues within the class.  I expect this class to allow us to delve deeply into the historical topics of each week’s readings.  To that end you need to make sure that you arrive to class on time ready to discuss the weekly readings, having carefully read and thought over the material.  You must take an active role in the class discussions.  Thus a portion of your grade will depend on your in-class performance and presence. 


In a class of this nature it goes without saying that a classroom environment in which everyone feels comfortable is essential.  You should treat your fellow classmates with respect, listen carefully to their comments and respond to them in a polite manner. 


I. Grading:


It is your responsibility to understand why you have achieved a certain grade, and what steps you can take to maintain or improve your grade.  You should consult with the instructor during office hours or by appointment before and after exams and written assignments.  Your final grade will be based on the following percentages























Your grade distribution for class assignments is as follows:


First Midterm


Second Midterm


Final Exam






First Bibliography


Second Bibliography






Rough Draft


Final Paper


Class Participation



J. Academic Integrity:


The Department of History adheres to guidelines on academic integrity outlined in the Student Conduct Code in the Student Handbook:


Cheating and plagiarism will be penalized in accord with the penalties and procedures indicated in that source.  All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the definition of these infractions of academic honesty. 


K. Absences:


I will regularly take attendance in this class. Absences due to college activities, emergency or extended illness may be excused by the appropriate college official. You should consult with the professor about making up missed work in advance or as soon as possible after your return.  Other absences are unexcused and will lower the class participation portion of your grade. After any absence, you are responsible for requesting hand-outs and already returned assignments from me or borrowing notes from other students. If you miss an exam, contact me as possible. You may take a missed exam only at the discretion of the instructor.


L.  Disabilities:


King’s College and I will make every effort to accommodate students with a bona-fide disability that impacts on their ability to learn the course material.  Please meet with me privately so that appropriate arrangements can be made to help in the learning process.


IV. Course Schedule


Introduction: Sources

Monday, August 27th


Modernity, Revolution and Ideology

Wednesday, August 29th

Question: What do we mean by modernity?  How is it related to new and revolutionary ways of understanding the world and building national, imperial and religious communities?


Exploration, Conquest and Trade

Friday, August 31st

Question: Why did Europeans become the leaders in 15th century overseas exploration, conquest and discovery?  What models of colonization did they establish?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 22 (464-491)

*Primary Source:  Christopher Columbus’ First Impression, Bentley, 474

***First Quiz due August 30th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


Early Modern Europe

Wednesday, September 5th

Question:  How did the Protestant Reformation and the Wars of Religion remake Europe?  What was the impact of the Scientific Revolution in transforming the worldview of those in Europe?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 23 (492-521)

*Primary Source:  Adam Smith on Capitalist Markets, Bentley, 513


“New Worlds” / “Old Worlds”

Friday, September 7th

Question:  How and why did the Spaniards conquer the Aztec Empire?  How is this conquest emblematic of other European conquests of the non-European world? How did this conquest transform American Societies?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 24 (522-547)

*Primary Source: Captain Cook on the Hawaiians, Bentley, 544


Absolutism and Enlightenment

Monday, September 10th

Question:  How was Absolutism an answer to the chaos of the European 16th Century?  How did it lead to the development of the European state system?  How did it seek to arrange the word around it?  How did the Enlightenment challenge traditional societal organization?  How did it change the way in which people understood their place in the world?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 23 (492-521)

***Second Quiz due September 9th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


Discussion: Bougainville, Diderot and Colonial Ideologies

Wednesday, September 12th   

Question: How does Diderot's Bougainville's Voyage help us understand the Enlightenment desire to catalogue and transform the world?  How is Diderot "inventing France" or notions of Western Civilization?  How is he "inventing Polynesia"?

*Reading: Diderot, Denis, “Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville” <<>>

***Paper: Topic Sentence***


Black Atlantic

Friday, September 14th

Question: How did racial slavery develop in contact between Africans and Europeans?  What were its effects on the Atlantic World? 

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 25 (548-569)

*Primary Source: King Alfonso I Protests the Slave Trade, Bentley, 554

*Primary Source: Equiano on the Middle Passage, Bentley, 562

***Third Quiz due September 13th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


Modernization and Centralization in East Asia

Monday, September 17th

Question: How did Japan and China seek to modernize and centralize their states during the 15-19th centuries?  How did they respond to the challenges of European colonialism and capitalism?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 26 (570-593)

*Primary Source: Quianlong on Chinese Trade, Bentley, 581

*Primary Source: Fabian Fucan Rejects Christianity, Bentley, 591

***First Microtheme***


The Rise of the Ottoman Empire

Wednesday, September 19th

Question:  How did the Ottoman Empire organize its society?  How was difference understood? What role did religion play?  What was the role of nationalism? What accounts for the empire's collapse?

*Readings: Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 27 (594-619)

*Primary Source: Islam and the Jews: The Status of Jews and Christians in Muslim Lands, 1772 CE <<>>



Mughal India and the Coming of the British East India Company

Friday, September 21st

Question:  What accounts for the success of the Mughal Empire under Akbar?  What factors account for its decline?  Why were the British successful in colonizing the Indian subcontinent?

*Readings: Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 27 (594-619)
*Primary Source: Gardens of the Mughal Empire <<>>

*Primary Source: Robert Clive, Letter to William Pitt on India 1759 <<>>

 ***Fourth Quiz due September 20th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


Revolution, Part I: France

Monday, September 24th

Question: Whose Revolution was the French Revolution?  What were its causes and effects?  What role did new social classes have to play in its development?  How did they each seek to organize newly revolutionary France? What role did nationalism play?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 28 (620-649)

*Primary Source: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, Bentley, 628

*Primary Source: Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen, Bentley, 640

***Paper: Preliminary Annotated Bibliography Secondary Sources***


Revolution, Part II: Haiti and the Americas  

Wednesday, September 26th

Question: Whose Revolutions were the Haitian and American Creole Revolutions?  What were its causes and effects?  What role did new social classes have to play in its development?  How did they each seek to organize their newly revolutionary societies? What role did nationalism play?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 28 (620-649)

*Primary Source: Slaves' Appeal to Thomas Gage, Royal Governor of Massachusetts, May 25 1774 <<>>

*Primary Source: Simón de Bolívar, Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819<<>>


Revolution, Part III: Industrialization

Friday, September 28th

Question: Whose revolution was the Industrial Revolution?  How did the Industrial Revolution remake European Society?  How did it change the place of Europe in the World?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 29 (650-675)

*Primary Source: Malthus on Population, Bentley, 664

*Primary Source: Marx and Engels on the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat, Bentley,

***First Midterm Due on Sept. 30th  at 11:00 p.m. on the course moodle site***


19th Century Nationalism

Monday, October 1st

Question: What factors contributed to the development of European nationalism?  What forms did it take?  What was its impact on the traditional European state system?  What impact did it have across the world? What is the "logic of the nation-state"?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 28 (620-649)

*Primary Sources: Johann Gottlieb Fichte, To the German Nation, 1806 <<>>

*Sharepoint: Empire in Europe / Europe in Empire


European Imperialism (Scramble for Africa)

Wednesday, October 3rd

Question: What were the motivations for European imperialism in the 19th century? What role did imperialism, racism and nationalism have to play?  What did European imperialism look like on the ground in Africa?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 32 (730-761)

*Primary Source: Kipling, White Man’s Burden, Bentely, 735

*Primary Source: Lord Lugard, Imperialism and Indirect Rule, Bentley, 744

***Fifth Quiz due October 2nd at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***



Middle Class Society and its Discontents

Friday, October 5th

Question: How did the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat seek to reorganize the world around them in the 19th Century?  How did they seek to define and organize social class?  What were the results of these processes? 

*Primary Source: Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morals (excerpts) <<>>


The Chinese 19th Century

Monday, October 8th

Question: What factors contributed to the fall of the Qing Dynasty?  What challenges did European imperialism present?  How did differing internal Chinese movements seek to (re)organize Chinese society?

*Readings: Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 31 (704-729)

*Primary Source: Xia Qinggao, selections from his account of travels in Europe <<>>

*Primary Source: Attempted reforms of Emperor Kuang Hsu <<>>

 ***Second Microtheme***


Asia and "the West"

Wednesday, October 10th 

Question:  How was Japan's 19th century unique in Asia?  How did they come to terms with European imperialism? Modernization? Nationalism?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 31 (704-729)

*Primary Sources: 1889 Japanese Constitution <<>>

***Sixth Quiz due October 9th  at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


World War I and Versailles

Monday, October 15th

Question: How did World War I complete the 19th Century process of creating European nation-states?  What was the war’s impact on the culture of the interwar years?  What was the war’s impact on interwar politics?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 33 (762-789)

*Sharepoint: World War I Poetry

***Preliminary Annotated Bibliography Primary Sources***


Russian Revolutions

Wednesday, October 17th

Question: Whose revolution (in theory) was the Russian Revolution?  How did the Russian Revolution seek to reorganize Soviet society?  How did it transform the politics and economy of the Russian Empire? What effect did it have on society and culture? 

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 34 (790-812)

*Primary Source: Goals and Achievements of the First Five Year Plan, Bentley, 805


Age of Anxiety

Friday, October 19th

Question: How did the Great Depression and the Destruction of the First World War Transform the worldview of the west in the 1920s and 1930s?  How was this age of anxiety reflected in art of the time?  How was it reflected in politics?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 34 (790-812)

*Primary Sources: Tristan Tzara, Dada Manifesto, <>

***Preliminary Thesis Statement***

***Third Microtheme***


America and the Question of "Double Consciousness" 

Monday, October 22nd 

Question: What is "double consciousness?  How is it a reflection of modernity?  How do Garvey and Dubois understand the issue?

*Readings: Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 30 (676-703)

***Seventh Quiz Due October 21st on the course moodle site***


Discussion: King Kong

Wednesday, October 24th

Question: How does King Kong reflect the general theme of anxiety?  What are people anxious about?


High Stalinism

Friday, October 26th 

Question:  How did Stalin seek to create a new type of subject: homo-sovieticus?  What programs did he implement?  What were the results of these programs?

*Readings: Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 34 (790-811)

*Primary Source: Powerpoint: Socialist Realism (moodle site)

***Second Midterm due by October 28th at 11:00 p.m. on course moodle site***



Monday, October 29th

Question: What accounts for the rise of Fascism in Europe?  What are its motivating principles?  How does fascism as an ideology seek to order society?  How is fascism’s relationship to art a metaphor for its larger programs?

*Reading: Bentley and Zeigler, Chapter 34 (790-811)

*Primary Source: Powerpoint: Trust not a Fox (moodle site)


World War II / Holocaust

Wednesday, October 31st 

Question: How is the Holocaust a reflection of Nazi ideology?  How does it compare to other attempts to create order in Europe and in the colonial world?  How does the Holocaust help us come to terms with the modernist attempt to create subjects?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 36 (834-860)

Primary Source: Jager Report <<>>

***Eighth Quiz due October 30th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site*** 


Chinese Revolutions

Friday, November 2nd 

Question: Whose revolution was the Chinese Revolution?  How did it seek to reorganize Chinese society?  What programs did it institute?  What were the results of these programs?

*Readings: Bentley and Zeigler,  Chapter 35 (812-834)

*Primary Source: Powerpoint: Chinese Revolutionary Posters (moodle site)



Monday, November 5th

Question:  How was the question of the nation-state understood by political actors in British India as they worked towards independence?  What were the challenges faced by the independence movements?  How did they meet these challenges?  What challenges remained after independence?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 37 (864-890)

*Primary Source: Muhammad Ali Jinnah on the Need for a Muslim Pakistan, Bentley, 869

*Primary Source, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Self Rule is my Birthright, Bentley, 817

***Historiographical Rough Draft***


Discussion: Train to Pakistan

Wednesday, November 7th

Question: How does partition look from Mano Majra?  What claims is Singh making about the creation of national communities?  Empire?  Subjectivity?

*Readings: Khuswant Singh, Train to Pakistan (entire)


Cold War, Part I: Ideology 

Friday, November 9th

Question: What role did ideology play in the development of the Cold War?  How did the United States and the Soviet Union work to reorganize European societies?  How was the "good life" defined in each camp?

*Primary Source: Khrushchev on the Capitalist Iron Curtain, Bentley, 1074

*Primary Source: “Make Mine Freedom,” John Sutherland Production, Extension Department of Harding College, 1949. <>


Cold War, Part II: The Atomic Age and the Question of Consumption

Monday, November 12th 

Question: How did the Atomic bomb ensure that the cold war was a "cold" war in Europe?  How did the Soviet Union and the United States seek to demonstrate that they had arrived at (or were approaching) the "good society"?

*Primary Source: Powerpoint: Pop Art (moodle site)

***Ninth Quiz due November 11th at 11:00 pm on the course moodle site***


Cold War, Part III: The "Third World"--Latin America

Wednesday, November 14th

Question:  How did the cold war play out in the so-called Third World?  What were its impacts on the ground in places like Latin America? 

*Primary Source: Journey to Bananaland <<>>

***Fourth Microtheme***


ASEEES Conference

Friday, November 16th  


Decolonialization in Africa: The Vampire State

Monday, November 19th

Question:  What is the “Curse of the Nation-State”?  What is a Vampire State? What were the challenges of the Independence movements in Africa?  How did they meet their goals?  What role did the cold war play in Africa in the mid to late 20th century?

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 36 (1005-1030) and 39 (1095-1130)

*Primary Sources, Marcus Garvey, Africa for Africans, Bentley, 1019

***Visit the Writing Center by November 18th for Review of your Rough Draft***


Discussion: Bob Marley

Monday, November 26th

Question:  How does the music of Bob Marley help us understand the perils and possibilities of living in the colonial and post-colonial era?

*Readings: Bob Marley Lyrics (moodle site)


Modern Middle East and the Question of Palestine

Wednesday, November 28th

Question:  How do nationalism and modernity play out in the Middle East?

*Primary Sources:

The Palestinian National Charter, 1968 <<>>

Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, 1948 << Process/Guide to the Peace Process/Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel>>

***Paper: Rough Draft***


Iranian Revolution and the Question of Modernity

Friday, November 30th

Question:  How is the Iranian Revolution a commentary on modernity?  Westernization?  Colonialism?

*Primary Source: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, The Uprising of Khurdad 15, 1979 <<>>

***Fifth Microtheme***


Discussion: Persepolis

Monday, December 3rd

Question:  How does Satrapi's work address the question of Modernity in the Context of the Iranian Revolution?  Boundaries of "East" and "West"?

*Readings: Satrapi, Persepolis vols. I and II (entire)



Wednesday, December 5th

Question:  What accounts for the collapse of socialist regimes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union?  Do the revolutions of 1989 and 1991 represent the triumph of liberal democratic capitalism? 

*Readings:  Bentley and Ziegler, Chapter 48 (890-924)

*Primary Source: Nelson Mandela, Inaugural Address, 1994 <<>>

*Primary Source: Osama bin Laden, Jihad against Jews and Crusaders, 1998 <<>>


Yugoslavia, Rwanda and the Question of the Nation-State

Friday, December 7th

Question: How does one locate the genocides in Rwanda and Yugoslavia historically?  How do they inform our understandings of the 20th century nationalist project?  The legacy of colonialism?

***Tenth Quiz Due December 6th at 11:00 p.m. on the course moodle site***

***Final Paper***