HIST 324
Empires of Greece and Rome: 500 B.C.-A.D. 500

Syllabus  Class Schedule
Spring 2016

Prof. Pavlac
Office: Hafey-Marian 307
  Office Hours: Tuesdays 9:30-11:30, 12:15-1:45
Fridays 9:30-10:45 and by appointment.
Tel: (570) 208-5900, ext. 5748

MW, 2-3:15 pm
Hafey-Marian 301

I. Description

War, slaughter, order, peace.  This course will examine empire building, empire-maintaining and empire-collapsing in the cultures of Classical Greece and Rome.  The rise of empire will cover the Delian League, the Macedonia success of Alexander the Great, Rome's expansion through the Punic Wars, and so many more.  The maintenance of empire will review issues of commerce, justice, citizenship, taxation, and cultural conflict.  The fall of empires will include the the Peloponnesian Wars, and the crises and collapse of the Western half of the Roman Empire.  Readings will be drawn from the historians and humanists of antiquity.

II. Purpose

This is a History Major, European course.

Student Learning Outcomes:

  1. Students will develop and apply knowledge of major historical subjects, themes, and concepts.
  2. Students will critically engage sources and assess historiographical arguments.
  3. Students will illustrate participation in historical conversations by producing original scholarship.

In addition to the more content related objectives described above, this course has some general liberal learning goals. Successful completion of this course is expected to help improve your ability

III. General Requirements

A. Academic Integrity.

Review the academic honesty policy concerning cheating and plagiarism, differing levels of violations, and your moral, ethical, and legal obligation only to submit work completed by you yourself. (click here for more information from the Student Handbook <http://www.kings.edu/non_cms/pdf/StudentHandbook.pdf#page=45>).  Also see <Help stop Plagiarism!>.

B. Reading:

The readings are intended to provide you with important factual and background information before class, a basis for discussion during class, and to be used as review and reference works afterwards.

Please obtain the following textbooks:

Before class, you will read  according to the class schedule, below. In all of your classes, you should prudently mark up, underline, highlight, and otherwise annotate your texts as you study. For this class, you are required to do so.
You should critique the textbooks as you study. While you are reading, use one or more highlighters or pens to mark up portions of the texts. You might use marks similar to those used by the professor in his assessment of your own assignments, found here. You might consider different colors for (a) historical facts, terms, dates, (b) important points or details, or (c) key explanatory phrases and sentences (d) significant quotes or lines. You might write comments in the margins about the following points:

Carefully reading and noting texts is so important that the instructor applies two methods of evaluation:
First, quizzes may be given. Quizzes are usually open book, so you may copy your answers from your notes onto the quiz sheet. Use your own words: language similar to the texts may be plagiarism.
Second, you are required to turn in your textbooks at exams; then the instructor will evaluate how well you have marked it up and answered review questions.

Bring the Bailkey & Lim textbook to each class, the Thucydides and Caesar books on the days scheduled to discuss them, and the handouts as assigned.  Ask questions about about your texts. We will discuss them. After class, regularly through the semester, you should review your class notes and compare them with the texts.

If you have a used textbook that has been already marked up or an electronic version of the textbook, or some other problem with obtaining a textbook, see the instructor within the first two weeks of classes so that solutions can be found for your use of the textbook and subsequent evaluation.

C. Class Participation & Attendance:

Participation and attendance are necessary because lecture and discussion provide the essentials for achieving class goals and objectives. Thus a portion of your grade (about 25%) will depend on your in-class performance, aside from graded quizzes, exams, and papers. You are required to attend each class, arrive on time, remain attentive, maintain proper classroom decorum, respond to questions, and participate in discussion and small-group activities.

You are encouraged to take notes and ask questions. Some class material will examine explicit issues of sex and violence.  Students are expected to be informed about significant current events, to enable mature engagement with the relevance of our society's past to present problems and controversies.

During class electronic devices may only be used for tasks and information relevant to the classroom activity and may not distract you or other students. Only with the instructor's permission may class be recorded, only to be used for your own study, and the recordings must be erased after the final exam.

Any student who has a learning disability, physical handicap, and/or any other possible impediment to class participation and requirements (whether vetted by the Academic Skills Center or not) should meet with the instructor within the first two weeks of classes to establish available accommodations.

If, at some point during the semester, you must discontinue the course, whether due to poor performance, illness, or some other cause, be sure to follow proper procedures for withdrawal through the Registrar.

D. Absence Policy:

Since participation and class attendance are necessary, if you miss a class you must complete an Absentee Assignment (see below) so that the instructor may evaluate whether some learning has taken place (see below).
If you arrive at class late, after attendance is taken, you must personally request that the absence be turned into a tardy mark; otherwise an Absentee Assignment (see below) may be required. Students who need to leave a class early, except for an emergency, should notify the instructor before class begins.

Missing a class falls into two categories, excused or unexcused, either of which requires submission of an Absentee Assignment (see below).

1. Excused absences are due to college activities, an emergency, or extended illness. They require a notification by the appropriate College official (coach, director, etc.). If you know in advance, you should consult with the instructor about making up/turning in missed work; otherwise contact the instructor as soon as possible after your return. They should have no negative impact upon your grade.

2. All other absences, for whatever reasons, are unexcused, but do not require any written documentation. More than a few will lower the class participation portion of your grade.

After any absence, you are also responsible for requesting any hand-outs and already-returned assignments from the instructor, or borrowing notes from other students.
If you miss any quizzes and/or class projects due to an excused absence, you may make them up with the explicit permission of the instructor, who may require any equivalent assignment, otherwise you will get an average of the other student grades, if you turn in an absentee assignment. 
If you miss an exam, you do not need to complete an Absentee Assignment, but contact the instructor as soon as possible to schedule a make-up for the exam. You may take a missed exam only at the discretion of the instructor.

A few unexcused absences or a make-up exam should not significantly affect your grade.  Always, your health is your first priority. If you are sick, stay away from class, and seek proper treatment and rest before returning to class.

E. Absentee Assignment:

Since participation and class attendance are necessary, if you miss a class you must complete an Absentee Assignment so that the instructor may evaluate whether some learning has taken place.
For an Absentee Assignment, you are to write a no-more-than-one page essay (in proper presentation format) covering that day's reading or discussion topic.
These papers are ungraded, without points, and not returned; yet failure to complete Absentee Assignments will significantly lower your grade, perhaps resulting in failure of the course.
Deadlines: The assignment(s) should be turned in to the instructor at the beginning of the next class after you return.

F. Exams:

You will take one midterm exam and one final exam, which is comprehensive, as assigned during finals week.

Both exams will consist of short identifications quizzing knowledge of detail and significance, and essays testing your understanding of the course material through logical presentation of facts and explanation of historical trends.

D. Major Sources:

You will read two major primary sources, The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides and The Conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar.  The instructor will provide you with study guides (worth 15 points each) ahead of time to fill out and turn in at the beginning of discussion (so you should make for yourself and refer to a copy to follow during discussion).  In the relevant classes, we will discuss the books in detail. 

To study for the exams you should regularly, at least once a week, review your class notes. You should also compare and contrast these notes with your textbook and with the issues and trends emphasized in the class description.  To avoid common exam errors, check the page on grading.  


A. Class Discussion:

As mentioned above, a significant part of the class will involve discussion. To be properly prepared for discussion requires you to read and mark up the texts assigned for that day according to the class schedule. When reading the primary sources in the Bailkey and Lim book, you should think about and try to answer (in notes or comments written in your textbooks) the following questions:

A short, in-class, open-book quiz may be given to encourage reading.

F. Major Writing Assignment: Imperial Wars Paper

You are to write an eight-to-ten page essay (3000-3200 words), which analyzes the use of war in empire building. (25+100 points).

Wars have always been a significant part of building empires.  Examining various wars in themselves or as policies of particular rulers or commanders should provide you a better understanding the role of war in statecraft and politics, past and present. You will manage information, evaluate different historical opinions, analyze arguments, organize your thoughts and present them in a clear written form in order to better understand an historical process.  
Both for practice in following guidelines and to facilitate consistency in grading, papers should be uniform in appearance following a standard format. For presentation guidelines, go to this page:  <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/presentation.html>. Use the checklist at <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/format.html> to review your formatting before you turn in your paper.

1. Choose a war or commander from the list on the instructor's door (HM 307), signing up before class on Monday, February 2.
Possibilities include: Epaminondas of Thebes' Wars; Phillip II of Macedon's Wars; Alexander's Campaigns; Wars of the Diadochi; Pyrrhus's Wars; Samnite Wars; First Punic War; Second Punic War; Third Punic War; Roman-Macedonian Wars; The Social War; Mithradatic Wars; Marius's Wars; Sulla's Wars; Pompey's Wars; Crassus's Wars; Civil War: Caesar vs. Pompey; Civil War: Antony & Cleopatra vs. Octavian; Boudicca's Revolt; Jewish Revolt; Trajan's Wars; Marcomannic Wars; Aurelian's Wars; Romans vs. Shapur I; Constantine's Wars; Alaric the Goth's Wars; Attila the Hun's Wars; another may be chosen with the instructor's permission. 

2. Research the topic.  In your research, find and use at least
a. one printed (not electronic from the internet or CD-ROM) tertiary source (encyclopedia, handbooks, dictionaries);
b. seven printed (not electronic from the internet or CD-ROM) secondary sources (scholarly, biographical, detailed works, books and/or journal articles written by professional historians and which closely examine the ruler or war). Journal articles may be full-text versions from an appropriate database;
c. two primary sources in addition to any found in the Bailkey & Lim text, published in whole or as part of any book or internet site.
If you have any doubts about the appropriateness of your sources, please see the professor early.

4.  You must turn in a Preliminary Assignment (worth 20 Points) on February 22 in proper presentation format:
after a cover page,
a. a one page desription of the topic. 
b. a page with a pre-bibliography listing each of your sources, in proper citation format, with the appropriate sources listed under the following subheadings:  "Tertiary Sources", "Secondary Sources", "Primary Sources".  For citation issues use Turabian/Chicago Manual of Style format (see Corgan Library <http://kings.libguides.com/citation> and click on "Cite Sources", then use the list of various websites; or go to the Corgan Library Study Guide #6; also see <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/citation.html>.

5. Write a careful essay whose thesis argues how the particular wars helped build, maintain, or break up a particular empire.  Be sure to put the time period in proper context, providing background in order to understand the reasons for people undertaking warfare in specific times and places.  Descriptions of causes, strategy, tactics, preparations, negotiations, battles, campaigns, treaties and consequences should all contribute to a better understanding of how this particular topic explains war and empire. You should especially incorporate the opinions by named, specific historians (both ancient and modern).  The quality and use of your research from both your primary sources and secondary sources of historical books will substantially influence the evaluation of your essay; be sure to use them in the body of your paper.  Support all your assertions with proper reasoning and/or details drawn from your sources, properly cited.

For more on evaluation of your papers and avoiding common errors see the page on "Grading and Assessment,"  <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/grading.html>.   

6. Rest, review, and revise repeatedly. You might use the Writing Center.  Include a revised bibliography as the last page.  Then write a final draft to be turned as listed in the schedule (100 points). 

IV. Grades:

You earn your grade through work done for this course.  You are responsible to understand why you have achieved a certain grade and what you can do to maintain or improve your grade.  You are encouraged to consult with the professor during office hours or by appointment both before and after exams and written assignments. 

Your final grade will be based on a percentage (above 90%=A, 80-89%=B, etc.) of the sum of the assignments. Different assignments will be worth certain point values.   The following is the weight given to your various learning tasks:

100 for the first exam; 150 for the final exam;
5-20 each for any in-class quizzes or class project statements;
15 points each for study guides of major primary sources;
15 points for each textbook evaluation at each exam (60 total);
100 for your Imperial Wars Paper;
200 for your class attendance & participation.

For your protection, in case of errors of recording, you should keep copies of all exams and assignments until you have received official notice of your final grade.  Any and all materials done for this course may become the property of the professor, who may use them for assessment, evaluative, scholarly, or research purposes.    

V. Class Schedule:


Topic/#Assignments Due

Assignments to read in Bailkey & Lim

Links to Interesting websites

Jan 18



For primary sources on ancient history see The Perseus ProjectInternet Ancient History SourcebookInternet Classics Archivevarious laws at Avalon Projecta few classics at electronic text center; Attalus.
Some secondary sources at Histos online journal of Ancient Historiography
Some good web entries: Livius

Jan 20

The Problem of Empire

14 Prism of Sennacherib
15 A Conquering Messiah: A. Cyrus' Cylinder: The Chosen of Marduk

Cyrus Cylinder description; and translation;  See also  Digital Egypt;

Jan 25

Greek Origins 17 Hesiod: Changing Times; 
20 Herodotus: Foundation of Cyrene
For the Greeks in general, read from: HellasNet

Jan 27

Polis 21 Lycurgus: Spartan; 
22 Solon: Reforms;
23 Pisistratus: Tyranny
Ancient Greek World;

Feb 1

The Persian War

#Choice for Imperial Wars Paper Due

24 Heroduotus: Greece Saved Ancient City of Athens;  See also  See also The Greeks Crucible of Civilization; Dr. J's Illustrated Persian Wars; See also Herodutus Website; Aeschylus' The Persians;  Map

Feb 3

"Golden Age" of Greece 25 Pericles: Funeral Oration;
26 Old Oligarch: Critical
Aspasia (follow the buttons at the bottom to the end of the sequence);  See also Aspasia of Athens; The Democratic Experiment; Greek Art and Architecture

Feb 8

Thucydides, The Peloponnesian Wars (War the Never Ends)
Study Guide due


Thucydides and the Modern World; Contemporary Analysis;
Classics Technology Center; Map

Feb 10

Peloponnesian Wars, part I
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian Wars



Feb 15

Peloponnesian Wars, part II
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian Wars


 Museum of the Goddess Athena

Feb 17

Rise of Macedon 30 Socrates: C Apology; 
33 Aristotle: The Politics;
34 Demosthenes versus Isocrates: "Nationalism" Versus "Internationalism"

Last Days of Socrates;
Trial of Socrates;

Feb 22

Alexander and Empire

#Preliminary Assignment for Imperial Wars paper due

35 Arrian, Alexander Alexander the Great; Alexander the Great;
Arrian's Anabasis full text;

Feb 24

Hellenistic Kingdoms 36 Demetrius: God Among Men;
38 Antigonus the One-Eyed;
42 Oil Monopoly of Ptolemy II: Command Economy;
46 First and Second Maccabees: Jewish Responses
House of Ptolemy;
See also Seven Wonders;
Maccabbean Revolt; The Maccabees What Really Happened

Feb 29




Mar 2

Mid-Term EXAM 

 #Bring your Bailkey & Lim and Thucydides books!


Spring Break




Mar 14

Roman Origins 48 Livy: Early Romans;
50 Polybius: Constitution;
52 Pseudo-Cicero: Elected
For the Romans in general, read from:  A Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Also of value LacusCurtius Into the Roman World...  See also Forumromanum; Timeless Myths of Rome.

Mar 16

Conquest of Italy 49 Livy: Foreign Policy Romanarmy.com;  See also How Democratic was the Roman Republic?;

Mar 21

Punic Wars

45 Polybius, Histories;
51 Cato the Elder: Standards
Waters of Rome;

Mar 23

Civil Wars

53 Tiberius Gracchus: Crossroads;
54 Gaius Gracchus: Crossroads, Continued;
55 Social War: Revolt;
56 Revolt of Spartacus
cracked warriors

Easter Break




Mar 30

Julius Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul
Study Guide due


Terry Jones contrasts JC with W;
Graphic Portfolio of Battlefields and Tactics in the ...de Bello Gallico

Apr 4

The Julian Attempt 57 Conspiracy of Cataline;
61 Julius Caesar: Man and Statesman
UNRV HistoryEarly Imperial Army Illustrated

Apr 6

The Post-Julian Civil Wars

#Imperial Wars Paper due

47 Plutarch, The Life of Antony: Cleopatra;
62 Cicero as Champion of Liberty: Second Philippic
Romans in Britain

Apr 11

The Augustan Solution 63 Augusts: Achievements;
64 Augustus' Reconstruction of the Roman World: Contrasting
Virgil; Imperial Forum

Apr 13

The Crises of the Bad Emperors 65 The Pax Romana: Divergent;
66 Tacitus: Germans;
67 Claudius' Letter to the Alexandrians;
68 Rebels Against Rome
The Roman Empire in the First Century;
De Imperatoris Romanis

Apr 18

The Five "Good" Emperors

69 Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan: Benevolent;
77 Christians and Their Persecutors: A. Pliny, Letters on Christians: Enlightened;
73 Marcus Aurelius, Meditations: atoms or Providence

Roman Numismatic Gallery

Apr 20

Crises of the late Second and Third Century 79 Lactantius: Deaths [Chapters IV and V, pp. 553-554]  

Apr 25

Imperial Revival of the late Third and Fourth Century 78 The Reforms of Diocletian;
79 Lactantius: Deaths;
80 Eusebius of Caesarea: Constantine
The Jewish Roman World of Jesus;
Flavius Josephus Homepage

Apr 27

The Crises of late Fourth and Fifth Century 83 The Theodosian Code;
84 Jerome, Letter: Lament;
85 Augustine, City of God: Unimportance
Virtual Rome

Apr 29

The Fall of Rome in the West 87 Salvian of Marseille: Governance of God Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;  See also Some (Sometimes Silly) Explanations for the Fall of RomeByzantine Studies Guide

May 2




May tba

FINAL EXAM (should take the full two hours)

#Bring your Bailkey & Lim and Caesar books!


Although the syllabus presents the basic content and requirements of the course, the professor reserves the right to change anything (e.g. assignments, point values, topics, due dates, grading policy, etc.), at any time, at his discretion.  

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Last Revision: 2016 February 8