HONORS 135 Ancient & Medieval History

history kingskings

(3 credits)

Fall 2018

Hafey-Marian 511
book concisewesternciv.com
Prof. Pavlac
Office: Hafey-Marian 307
  Office Hours: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1:30-3:30 pm;
and by appointment.
Tel: 570-208-5900, ext. 5748
Section H: TuTh, 9:30-10:45 am
Section H1: TuTh, 11 am-12:15 pm


I. Description:

What does it mean to be a member of Western civilization? This survey of history up to the Baroque period around 1600 can help answer that question. This course is a survey of the main stages of Western Civilization, with an emphasis on concepts, forces, ideas, events, and people that have shaped our western society up to the 17th century. In coordination with other classes on art, literature, philosophy, and theology, this class will emphasize the political, social, and economic constraints and opportunities faced by the founders of Western culture.

II. Purpose:

A. Mission Statement:

This Honors course is part of the Historical Introduction to the Humanities suite of courses.

This class is an important part of your education!  The two civilization courses are designed to explore in some depth the complex dimensions of our world and the cumulative experience of the past, to provide an understanding of how yesterday influences today and the outlook for tomorrow. We study the major developments of Western peoples up until the present because most of the problems and institutions of contemporary society have distinguishable roots in the historical past. Moreover, because of the physical and material expansion of the West in the modern period, many of these forms (Christianity, capitalist industrial manufacturing, the nation-state system, etc.) have become global in nature.

We offer these courses as part of your general education requirements because it is important for educated citizens to be familiar with the main stages of Western Civilization and recognize it as an expanding force which produced important forms of political, social, and economic organization. You should understand that most of the structures within which we order our lives are products of this evolution. Historians believe that past human behavior can be studied scientifically and that social scientists can improve our understanding of people in the present.

Further, whatever your major or career goals may be, throughout your lives you will be deluged with information, opinion, and interpretations about events which you should be able to evaluate critically. Answering questions and solving problems by critical analysis -- not just memorization of data -- is a basic goal of education. Information is just the raw material in this process and, though rational analysis must be based on factual data, memorizing tidbits of information is not an end in itself. Our real goal is to develop concepts which give order and meaning to the raw material of our recorded past. Doing this requires comprehension beyond minimal factual details of past events. Major emphasis will be on patterns, themes, and concepts against which the factual data must be understood.

We hope that upon successful completion of this course you will have improved your understanding of world civilizations and become a more perceptive judge of the data, opinions, interpretations, and explanations continuously offered to you. This process, indeed, should last your whole life, since (paraphrasing the observation of the distinguished professional historian Carl L. Becker from 1931) "Ultimately, every person is their own historian."

B. Objectives for the student:

D. General Learning Outcomes for the student:

In addition, this course has some general liberal-arts goals of developing academic skills. It is expected that successful completion of this course will help you improve your ability:

III. General Requirements

A. Academic Integrity.

Review the academic honesty policy concerning cheating and plagiarism, differing levels of violations, and your moral, ethical, and legal obligation only to submit work completed by you yourself. (click here for more information from the Student Handbook <http://www.kings.edu/non_cms/pdf/StudentHandbook.pdf#page=49>).  Also see <Help stop Plagiarism!>.

B. Reading:

The readings are intended to provide you with important factual and background information before class, a basis for discussion during class, and to be used as review and reference works afterwards.

Please obtain the following textbooks (preferably clean, unmarked-up copies):

Before class, you will read according to the class schedule, below. In all of your classes, you should prudently mark up, underline, highlight, and otherwise annotate your texts as you study. For this class, you are required to do so.
You should critique the textbook as you study. While you are reading, use one or more highlighters or pens to mark up portions of the text. You might use marks similar to those used by the professor in his assessment of your own assignments, found here. You might consider different colors for (a) historical facts, terms, dates, (b) important points or details, or (c) key explanatory phrases and sentences (d) significant quotes or lines. You might write comments in the margins about the following points:

Be sure to answer the review question at the end of each section in the Concise Western Civ text by writing in your book (or on a removeable note) . You might think out and write answers to the "Consider this:" questions at the end of each section in the Aspects text.

Carefully reading and noting texts is so important that the instructor applies two methods of evaluation:
First, quizzes may be given. Quizzes are open book, so you may copy your answers from your notes onto the quiz sheet. Use your own words: language similar to the texts may be plagiarism.
Second, you are required to turn in your textbooks at each exam; then the instructor will evaluate how well you have marked them up and answered review questions.

Bring your Concise Survey and Aspects textbooks to each class. The Machiavelli book only needs to be brought to the class when it will be discussed.  Ask questions about about your texts. We will discuss them. After class, regularly through the semester, you should review your class notes and compare them with the texts.

If you have a used textbook that has been already marked up, or an electronic version of the textbook, or some other problem with obtaining a textbook, see the instructor within the first two weeks of classes so that solutions can be found for your use of the textbook and subsequent evaluation. At the end of the second week the instructor will examine your books to see how marked-up they are.

C. Class Participation:

Participation and attendance are necessary because lecture and discussion provide the essentials for achieving class goals and objectives. Thus a portion of your grade (about 20%) will depend on your in-class performance, aside from graded quizzes, exams, and papers. You are required to attend each class, arrive on time, remain attentive, maintain proper classroom decorum, respond to questions, and participate in discussion and small-group activities.

You are encouraged to take notes.  Student are also responsible for carrying out discussion, providing answers to questions about material in your readings, and bring up knowledge from other classes and experiences.  You can also contribute to discussion by asking questions.  Since mature engagement with our society's past and present problems and controversies requires knowledge about the world today, students are expected to be informed about significant current events.

During class electronic devices may only be used for tasks and information relevant to the classroom activity and may not distract you or other students. Only with the instructor's permission may class be recorded, only to be used for your own study, and the recordings must be erased after the final exam.

If you have a specific physical, psychiatric, attentional, or learning disability that may have some impact on your work in this class and for which you may require accommodations, please see the Disability Services Coordinator in the Academic Skills Center (Mulligan 94) with documentation. It will be your responsibility to also notify me so that such accommodations may be arranged.

If, at some point during the semester, you must discontinue the course, whether due to poor performance, illness, or some other cause, be sure to follow proper procedures for withdrawal through the Registrar.

Several minor written assignments (a paragraph to one page in length) may also be required as reflections and reactions to class discussion and projects (10 points each).

D. Absence Policy:

Since participation and class attendance are necessary, if you miss a class you must complete an Absentee Assignment (see below) so that the instructor may evaluate whether some learning has taken place (see below).
If you arrive at class late, after attendance is taken, you must personally request that the absence be turned into a tardy mark; otherwise an Absentee Assignment (see below) may be required. Students who need to leave a class early, except for an emergency, should notify the instructor before class begins.

Missing a class falls into two categories, excused or unexcused, either of which requires submission of an Absentee Assignment (see below).

1. Excused absences are due to college activities, an emergency, or extended illness. They require a notification by the appropriate College official (coach, director, etc.). If you know in advance, you should consult with the instructor about making up/turning in missed work; otherwise contact the instructor as soon as possible after your return. They should have no negative impact upon your grade.

2. All other absences, for whatever reasons, are unexcused, but do not require any written documentation. More than a few will lower the class participation portion of your grade.

After any absence, you are also responsible for requesting any hand-outs and already-returned assignments from the instructor, or borrowing notes from other students.

If you miss any quizzes and/or in-class writing or activity projects due to an excused absence, you may make them up with the explicit permission of the instructor, who may require any equivalent assignment.  If you have turned in an absentee assignment you will receive the class average of the scores for that assignment.

If you miss an exam, you do not need to complete an Absentee Assignment, but contact the instructor as soon as possible to schedule a make-up for the exam. You may take a missed exam only at the discretion of the instructor.

A few unexcused absences or a make-up exam should not significantly lower your grade.  Always, your health is your first priority. If you are sick, stay away from class, and seek proper treatment and rest before returning to class.

E. Absentee Assignment:

Since participation and class attendance are necessary, if you miss a class you must complete an Absentee Assignment so that the instructor may evaluate whether some learning has taken place.
For an Absentee Assignment, you are to write a no-more-than-one page essay (in proper presentation format, though without a Bibliography) covering that day's reading or discussion topic.
These papers are ungraded, without points, and not returned; yet failure to complete Absentee Assignments will significantly lower your grade, perhaps resulting in failure of the course.
Deadlines: The assignment(s) should be turned in to the instructor at the beginning of the next class after you return.

F. Exams:

You will take two exams: one on the assigned date in the class schedule and the other as to be scheduled during finals week. The final exam is comprehensive, covering material since the beginning of the course.

Exams will consist of short answers and longer essays demanding your understanding of the course material through logical presentation of facts and explanation of historical trends. Questions will be drawn from the weekly Question classes on the class schedule, those throughout Aspects and CSWC and from the sample questions are listed at: URL: <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/HNRS/135study1.html> for the midterm and at URL: <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/HNRS/135study2.html> for the final. Additional questions may be worked out in class before the exams.

To study for exams, you should regularly (at least once a week) review your class notes. You should also compare and contrast these notes with your textbook and with the issues and trends emphasized in the class description, section I. You will turn in your textbooks during exams to be evaluated by the instructor on how well they have been marked up and noted (10 points each text for each exam).

H. Written Assignments:

You are to write one six-to-seven page essay which evaluates whether a ruler should be considered as "good" or "bad." (5+25+100+15 points)

Historians often hold different, even conflicting, views about political leaders in the past. Researching in order to evaluate a leader should provide you a better understanding of how historians approach facts and form opinions. You will manage information, evaluate different historical opinions, analyze arguments, organize your thoughts and present them in a clear written form in order to better understand the historical study of personality and leadership.

You must sign up on the list as posted on the professor's office door (Hafey-Marian 507) by the date listed in the class schedule (0 points). Only one student per section per choice; first come first served. You can review the possible choices from the list [click] here <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/HNRS/plistg.html>. Before you choose, you should do some basic research about the ruler to see if you can find enough information (see below) and whether you are sufficiently interested in the subject.

You need to get started doing research early. Doing this portion of the project will help (worth 5 points) you begin to gather information to understand your subject.

To do this assignment, it is recommended that you follow this procedure:

1. Be sure you have chosen a proper topic from the list [click] here <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/HNRS/plist.html>.

2. Start to research the person/event well in advance of the due date. Start to determine what specific grounds or ideologies you will use for evaluation.. For Essentials on Research from Corgan Library, click here. For a sample Research Plan, click here. We will be visiting the Corgan Library to revew its resources.

3. History research requires sources.  For more on sources, click here.  Remember, there are three kinds of sources.  For this assignment you will need a minimum of
- one tertiary source: from Britannica Online (connect from the library here). Bring a photocopy of the article to class on the due date.
- three secondary book or journal article (scholarly, written by professional historians and published by reputable presses) which closely examines the person or his/her times; Bring the books to class on the due date.
- and one primary source (which you may access via electronic or printed republished versions). Bring a photocopy of the first page of that source to class on the due date.

4. Start to cite properly. For more on citation and bliographic formatting, click here. For a sample bibliography page click here.

If you have any doubts about the appropriateness of your sources, please see the instructor early.
For more help on primary sources from Corgan Library, click here
on citation, here, or from the text website, click here.

5. Turn in a written assignment on the date listed in the class schedule, in the proper presentation format. The title page will have your choice as the paper title (the name of the ruler); a second Bibliography page will list at least one tertiary source from Britannica Online (connect from the library here, three books which are a modern professional academic biography/history secondary source, and a possible primary source covering the person/subject. Bring the books to class.
Use the checklist at <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/sformat.html> to review your assignment before you turn it in.

This portion of the project (worth 25 points), builds on the foundation you have already laid.

To do this assignment, it is recommended that you follow this procedure:

1. Find more sources.  For more on sources, click here.  Refer to a minimum of
- two tertiary sources: your Britannica Online source from the previous assignment AND one from a printed book from the Reference section of the library, including encyclopedias, handbooks, dictionaries. The Concise textbook and Webpages may be cited, but does not count as one of the required two sources.
- five professional secondary sources (scholarly, written by professional historians and published by reputable presses) which closely examines the person or event, three of which must be a printed book;
- and two primary sources (which you may access via electronic or printed republished versions). Only one may be from the Aspects book, and all should be found in their full complete edition.

2. Cite properly. This assignment will be evaluated both on the quality of references and the accuracy of bibliographic formatting. For more on citation and bliographic formatting, click hereFor a sample bibliography page click here.

3. Based on your sources, pull together the main points you wish to emphasize and an overall point of view.

4. Turn in, as listed in the class shedule in proper presentation format, after a cover page,
(1) one page with a thesis statement written as one full complete sentence followed by an outline (at least three main points and a supporting detail or two for each) of your key points; the thesis should be a statement about the controversy and where you have taken a stand; outline should be in short bullet points
(2) on the next page a pre-bibliography of your sources, in proper format; followed by
Use the checklist at <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/s23format.html> to review your presentation before you turn in your paper.

This portion (115 points) is the culmination of your written assignment.

To do this assignment, it is recommended that you follow this procedure:

1. Write a careful essay of six-to-seven pages of text (not counting title page and bibliography) whose thesis argues the good and bad qualities of your chosen ruler. The quality and use of your research from sources will substantially influence the evaluation of your essay be sure to use them in the body of your paper. The instructor is largely interested in the historical arguments on one side or the other, and one paragraph must be devoted to explaining the other point of view. You must clearly state the criteria by which you are judging your ruler (how do you define the good or bad qualities on which you make your evaluation). Most major points should be devoted to specifics. Be sure to place ruler in historical context, focusing on how things used to be before, the historical process of change, and/or how this event or person's life still affects us today. DO NOT GIVE A STRAIGHT BIOGRAPHY. Avoid almost all biographical matter except how it might give evidence to prove your points. Support all your assertions with proper reasoning and/or details drawn from your sources, properly cited.

2. Write drafts of your paper. Rest, review, and revise repeatedly. You might use the Writing Center.

3. Prepare a four-minute long oral report (15 points) which you will present to class when you turn in the paper.

4. Turn in a final draft as listed in the class schedule (100 points). Include a revised bibliography after the text pages (do not include the pages with choice, thesis, or photocopies from previous assignments).
Use the checklist at <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/methods/s34format.html> to review your presentation before you turn in your paper.

IV. Grading Policy:

You earn your grade through work done for this course. It is your responsibility to understand why you have achieved a certain grade and what steps you can take to maintain or improve your grade.

For your protection, in case of errors in recording, you should keep copies of all exams and assignments until you have received official notice of your final grade. Any and all materials done for this course may become the property of the instructor, who may use them for assessment, evaluative, scholarly, or research purposes.

Click here for essential information about evaluation and grading. For more information on grades, see your Student Handbook and the college catalog.

Your final grade will be based on a percentage (above 90%=A, 80-90%=B, etc., with borderline grades earning "+" or "-") of the sum of the assignments. Different assignments will be worth certain point values.


Completing assignments on time is an important aspect of your course work.  You yourself must hand in each due assignment at the beginning of class on the dates as listed in the schedule, or as soon as possible after an absence.
The grade of any assignment you turn in late will lose at least 10% after the beginning of the first class, 20% after the second, and 35% after the third. No late papers will be accepted after the last day of class, resulting in a zero for any such assignment.

Most important, this course and your entire education should be about learning to be a better human being, not merely earning grades and fulfilling requirements.  The grades and requirements, however, are imperfect means toward that noble end.  Please consult with the professor about how you can succeed. 

V. Class Schedule:

Should the College cancel classes, still do work according to the schedule below, until otherwise instructed by the instructor.

Should the College have a compressed schedule, still do the work according to the schedule below, and turn it in at the next class, until otherwise instructed by the instructor.  Meeting time under the compressed schedule for the 9:30 section is 11:00-11:50 pm and for the 12:30-1:45 section is 1:00-1:50 pm.

date topic   readings
Aug 28 Orientation    
Aug 30 Week 1
  CSWC, How to Use this Book, Chap. 1
Aspects, Preface
Sep 4 Week 2
Prehistory and Middle Eastern Civilizations

What is the difference between civilized and barbarian?

CSWC, Chap. 2, 3
Aspects, Chap. 1, Reign of Sargon; Code of Hammurabi; Building the Pyramids; Ramses the Great; The Ten Commandments; The Covenant Code

Sep 6     How Is Civilization worthwhile?
Textbook Check
Sep 11 Week 3

What varieties of government did the Greeks offer?

CSWC, Chap. 4
Aspects, Chap. 3, The City-State of Sparta: Reforms of Lycurgus; Spartan Discipline; Funeral Oration of Pericles; The 300 Spartans at Thermopylae; The Mytilenian Debate; The Melian Dialogue;
Chap. 4, The First Philippic; "They speak of Nothing But Your Power"; On the Crown; "Carve Out a Kingdom..."; Destruction of Persepolis; The Character and Leadership of Alexander; The Unenlightened Majority; Allegory of the Cave

Evaluating Rulers, Part One: Choice DUE

Sep 13     How did the Greeks balance communal versus individual responsibility?
Go online and click on the approriate links:  Click here to take this survey
Sep 18 Week 4
Early Rome
  Library Visit
Sep 20    

How did Roman regimes change?

CSWC, Chap. 5
Aspects, Chap. 5, The Rape of Lucretia; The Growth of Latifundia; The Murder of Tiberius Gracchus; "Vengeance and Excessive Cruelty"; "The Die is Cast"; "We must trust to the Mercy of the Storm"; Caesar's Reforms; Abuse of Power; The Assassination of Julius Caesar; "A Public Prostitute"...; the Murder of Cicero...; "The Attraction Was Something Bewitching"; "She Was No Weak-Kneed Woman;" The Powers and Authority of the Emperor; The Transition from Republic to Principate; Res Gestæ...; The Mission: "To Spare the Conquered and Crush the Proud"

Sep 25 Week 5 Christianity  

How did Christians manage to convert Romans?

CSWC, Chap. 6, 105-114, 123-124
Aspects, Chap. 6, The Imperial Cult...; Invasion of the Eastern cults; Orgiastic Frenzy; The Baptism of Jesus; The Sermon on the Mount; the Good Samaritan; Instructions to the Twelve Disciples; Peter: The Rock; Suffering, Persecution, and the Son of Man; The final Judgment; Paul's Answer to the Intellectuals; "Neither Jew Nor Greek, Male Nor Female"; The Resurrection of Christ; The Persecution under Nero; "The Infection of this Superstition..."; Persecution under Diocletian; "A Religion of Lust"...; A Christian Defense; First Principles; The City of God; The Confessions; The Petrine Theory; Loyalty to the Pope...

Sep 27     Is Christianity a Beneficial Belief System?
Oct 2 Week 6
Later Rome
  How did the Roman Empire collapse in the West?

CSWC, Chap. 6, 114-122
Aspects, Chap. 7, Imperial Army; Imperial Patronage; Techniques of Roman Control; The Glory of the City; The Dark Side of Rome; "Bread and Circuses"; A Slave Rebellion; Meditations; "Empire for Sale"; News of the Attacks; Decline and Christianity; Barbarization of Civilization

Evaluating Rulers, Part Two: Preliminary Resarch DUE

Oct 5     What Caused the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West?
Oct 9 Week 7
Midterm Exam
  Exam <http://staff.kings.edu/bapavlac/HNRS/135study1.html>
Oct 18 Week 8
Early Middle Ages

How did the West manage to survive?

CSWC, Chap. 7
Aspects, Chap. 8, The Secret History of Justinian and Theodora; The Nika Riot; Heresy: The Threat of Arianism; The Nicene Creed: Iconoclasm and Orthodoxy; Beowulf; Charlemagne; The Missi Dominici: Education and the Scriptures; 1066; Annals of Xanten; Siege of Paris; Legal Rules for Military Service; Liege Homage; Restraint of Feudal Violence; Ordeal of Hot Iron

Oct 18     How do Belief, Violence, and Promises Interact to Create Effective Government?
Oct 23 Week 9
High Middle Ages

How did forces of Church and State relate?

CSWC, Chap. 8, 147-164, 182-184
Aspects, Chap. 9, Launching the Crusades; Out of Control: The Fall of Jerusalem; Protection of Allah; The Franks; The Excommunication of Emperor Henry IV; "Go to Canossa!"; Oath at Canossa; A Martyrdom in Glass; The Rule of Saint Benedict; "The Rights of Englishmen"; Innocent Protects His Investment; Political Theory: The Responsibilities of Kingship; Chivalric Ideals


Oct 25     Were the Crusades a Holy War?
Oct 30 Week 10
Late Middle Ages

How did medieval institutions begin to fail?

CSWC, Chap. 8, 165-181
Aspects, Chap. 10, Clericis Laicos, Unam Sanctam, The Argument Against Papal Supremacy; On the Abuses of Avignon; "The Wolf is Carrying Away Your Sheep"; The Great Schism; The Council of Pisa; The Council of Constance; "Luxury Demands Gratifications"; The Wealth of the Church; "A Most Terrible Plague;" "God's Hand Was Unstrung";

Nov 1    

Should the papacy should be supreme?

Evaluating Rulers, Part Three: Drafting Research DUE

Nov 6 Week 11

How did the West rediscover classical antiquity?

CSWC, Chap. 9, 185-198
Aspects, Chap. 11, A Humanist Education: The Rule of Cosimo d'Medici; "This Will be Your Final Destruction"; The Artistic Competition; Book of the Courtier; On the Nature and Purpose of Women and Men; "All Wickedness is but Little...";

Nov 8     Is the Educational Concept of the Renaissance Still Relevant?
Nov 13 Week 12
The Reformation

How did the Western Latin Church fracture?

CSWC, Chap. 9, 199-210, 220-222
Aspects, Chap. 12, "The Cheat of Pardons and Indulgences"; Instructions for the Sale of Indulgences; "How many Sins Are Committed..."; Salvation Through Faith Alone; The Ninety-five Theses; Address to the Christian Nobility...; On Christian Liberty; "Here I Stand"; The Edict of Worms; Condemnation of the Peasant Revolt; On the Necessity of Reforming the Church; Ordinances for the Regulation of Churches; "The Wretched Condition of the Christian State"; "They Should Be Drowned Without Mercy"; The Supremacy Act; The Act of Succession; Good Queen Mary; Bloody Mary; The Enforcement of the Elizabethan Settlement; The Closing Oration at Trent; The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre; The Edict of Nantes

Nov 15     Were Protestant Reforms Good for Christianity?
Nov 20 Week 13   Machiavelli, The Prince (and other sources in the assigned edition written by him): STUDY GUIDE ASSIGNMENT here DUE
Nov 27 Week 14
Age of Discovery and Colonization

How did the Europeans engage the rest of the world?

CSWC, Chap. 9, 211-220
Aspects, Chap. 13, The Aztec Encounter; Montezuma "We shall Obey..."; Human Sacrifice; The Destruction of Tenochtitlan; "We Could No Longer Endure the Stench..."; The Devastation of Smallpox; The Extraction of Mercury; The Silver Mines of Potosi; The Barbarians of the New World; The Black Legend: Utopia; On Cannibals

Nov 29     Did Columbus's Voyages Have a Positive Impact on World History?
Dec 4 Week 15  

Evaluating Rulers, Part Four: Presenting Reseach DUE

Dec 6 last class   Review
Dec 11, 12 FINAL EXAM  

Tuesday December 11 at 1:00-3:00pm for 11am-12:15pm section; Wednesday Dec 12 at 10:15am-12:15pm for 9:30-10:45am section


Although the syllabus presents the basic content and requirements of the course, the professor reserves the right to change anything (e.g. assignments, point values, topics, due dates, grading policy, etc.), at any time, at his discretion.   All these requirements, remember, are to help you to learn. 

history kingskings

Honors Program
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Last Revision: 2018 November 27